9. Sodium status of soil, forages, and small ruminants of Punjab, Pakistan

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Samra Siddique, Kafeel Ahmad, Zafar Iqbal Khan, Kinza Wajid, Humayun Bashir, Mudasra Munir Muhammad Nadeem Ijaz Rasool Noorka Ifra Saleem Malik, Asma Ashfaq Ilker Ugulu Mubeen Akhtar, Pervaiz Akhtar Naunain Mehmood Hira Muqadas Mahpara Shehzadi


The present investigation was aimed to search out the sodium level in soil, forages and blood samples of the small ruminants (goat and sheep) of three districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Most forage and soil samples were found deficient in sodium contents. The lower level of Na was found in soil as well as in forages of three districts (Sargodha, Mianwali, Bhakkar). Most of the forage samples are so deficient in Na contents that they fall much below the critical levels known to be adequate for normal ruminant requirements. Significantly decreased (p<0.05) level of sodium content was observed in soil, forages as well as blood samples. The existing mineral deficiency problems might be due to the animal are fed on forages that are deficient in sodium Content due to sandy soils in that particular site, where leaching of nutrients is a major problem. So, the consumption of materials with an appropriate dose of minerals mix is recommended for proper growth and reproduction of animals of commercial values.

Keywords: Blood; Forage, Goat; Pakistan; Plasma; Sheep; Sodium


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