12. Utilization of citrus plant waste (peel) for the development of food product

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Muhammad Iftikhar, Said Wahab Naveed ul Haq Saima Naz Malik Safa Amber Najeeb Ullah Taran Shams Ur Rehman


Citrus peels, the waste by-products of citrus juices factories are valuable healthful functional food (fiber, mineral and antioxidants). The present investigation performed to assess the nutritional status of fortified cake with citrus sinensis (sweet orange) peels powders. Citrus peel and fine flour contains moisture 7.62%, 9.82%, protein 4.53%, 10.55%, fat 3.82%, 1.52%, fiber 63.45%, 1.77% and ash 4.63%, 4.14%. Different level of orange peel from 1% - 5% were blended with wheat flour to produce composite flour. Ash content increased from 1.00 to 2.00%, Moisture showed reduction from 24.32% (T0) to15.96%(T5), Crude protein was reduced from 12.00%(T0)  to 11.02%(T5), crude fat content increased from 13.05%(T0)  to 15.34%(T5), and crude fiber increased from 2.00%(T0)  to 6.46%(T5). Citrus peel cakes were found reasonably different just as subjected to organoleptic analysis. Mean values for color T0 (7.20)-T5 (6.33), taste, T0 (7.13)-T5 (6.14), texture T0 (7.23)-T5 (6.54), overall acceptability T0 (7.19)-T5 (6.34). From the current results it is concluded that blending of wheat flour up to 3% citrus peel flour is suitable for cake development with acceptable sensory attributes and the addition of peel powder in cake increases its nutritional and functional attributes.

Keywords: Citrus peel; Citrus peel fortified cake; Organoleptic attributes; Proximate constituents; Wheat flour


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