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Indiscriminate use of pesticides in agriculture sector is getting more attention with regard to its Eco-toxicological impacts. The study was therefore conducted to evaluate the hazardous effects of Chlorpyrifos (CPF) insecticide on the liver of birds. A total of 40 mature and healthy pigeons (Columba livia domestica) were used in present study. Birds were divided in four equal groups as A, B, C & D. During acclimatization and treatment periods all birds were supplied equal quantity of food and water on daily basis. Birds in treatment group B, C & D were orally administrated orally 1.3mg, 1.6mg and 2.1 mg/kg body weight/day for conductive 36 days, while birds without CPF treatment kept as control group (A). During treatment period clinical and stress related signs were observed in birds of group (B-D). Highly significant decrease (P<0.001) in body weights and significant (P<0.05 & P < 0.01) decline in feed intake were observed in treated birds of groups (B-D) as compared to birds of control group. CPF induced highly significant (P< 0.001) increase in absolute and relative weights of liver and a significant (P<0.01) increase in liver enzyme, serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) in birds of group (C-D). Mortality was observed in all treatment groups. Histopathological alterations in liver revealed; enlargement, inflammations and vacuolation of hepatocytes with broaden sinusoidal in treated birds while birds in group D showed major histopathological changes. The results of present study revealed that, the exposure to chlorpyrifos insecticide may induce moderate to severe hepatic alterations in birds. Safe and justified use can minimize such hazardous effect.
Keywords: Biochemical; Chlorpyrifos; Hepatotoxic effects; Histopathological and Pigeon