9. A review: Use of plant extracts and their phytochemical constituents to control antibiotic resistance in S. aureus

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Arshia Nazir, Kausar Malik, Husnain Qamar Muhammad Hamza Basit Ayesha Liaqat, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Islam Khan, Areeba Fatima, Asma Irshad Haleema Sadia


Although the invention of antibiotics has reduced the morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases but the inappropriate use of antibiotics both for humans and animals has led to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains of bacteria and fungi. Among the antibiotic resistant pathogens, S. aureus is the pathogen of greatest concern due to its intrinsic virulence, its ability to cause a large number of infections and to survive under various environmental conditions. Modification of antibiotic (β-lactamases), use of alternative target site (PBP2a), efflux of antibiotics (NorA) and biofilm formation are some of the mechanisms utilized by S. aureus to develop resistance against antibiotics. This has lead to the increased interest in traditional medicine that has long been used to cure various infectious diseases at different regions of the world. Plant extracts serve as an important source to combat microbial resistance because they consist of complex mixture of phytochemical constituents against which the development of resistance is very slow. In additions, phytochemical constituents present in the plant extracts also act as immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agents. The current study aims at stimulating the search of plant extracts and their phytochemical constituents to control microbial resistance. In future, plant extracts as well as their purified constituents could be used as potent therapeutic agents for the treatment of infections caused by S. aureus without obvious side effects.

Keywords: β-lactamases; Biofilm formation; Efflux pump; Multidrug resistance; Phytochemical constituents; Plant extracts



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