78. The potentiality of toxic metals to wheat crop as affected by municipal solid waste: An implication to human health

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Zafar Iqbal Khan, Kafeel Ahmad, Fazeela Zameer Naunain Mehmood Kinza Wajid Aima Iram Batool Muhammad Nadeem Pervaiz Akhter, Maria Ghazzal, Mubeen Akhtar, Humayun Bashir, Asma Ashfaq, Mudasra Mnuir Ifra Saleem Malik


The by-product of industrial and municipal wastewater is sewage sludge. It is enriched with a lot of organic nutrients. The sewage sludge that has high amount of organic matter, micronutrients, and macro-nutrients, are usually used as fertilizer for horticultural crops. The impact of sewage sludge on heavy metal’s uptake ratio by wheat variety is observed by conducting a pot experiment. The amount of heavy metals in various parts of wheat plant was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-6300 Shimadzu Japan). The metals concentration in grains of wheat ranged from 0.64 to 0.97 for Zn, 0.76 to 0.93 for Co, 1.30 to 1.61 for Cd and 0.81 to 1.58 mg/kg for Fe, respectively. All metal concentrations were found below the permissible limits suggested by FAO/WHO. The calculation for translocation and bio-concentration factor for various parts of the wheat crop was done. However, there may be a risk of the presence of potentially unsafe substances in the sewage sludge e.g., pathogens and heavy metals.

Keywords: Contamination; Health risk; Metal; Sewage sludge; Triticum aestivum


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