10. A review on foot and mouth disease in dairy animals, etiology, pathogenesis and clinical findings

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Abdullah Azeem, Immad Rashid Muhammad Muzzammil Hassan Muhammad Asad, Ghazala Kaukab Amna Tehseen Sabita Aamir


Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious disease of angulated animals and in livestock, it is an important pathogen more than 120 years after it was recognized. The virus of this disease belong to a genus Aphthovirus of the family picornaviridae and present as seven serotypes C, O, A, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, and Asia1. Transmission of this disease occurs by direct and indirect contact, ingestion and by aerosols. The best multiplication sites of this virus are oral cavity, udder, heart, feet, and oro-pharynx. Specific, sensitive and quick diagnostic tools are required for effective control of this disease. FMD causes fever, salivation, anorexia and vesicular eruption on teats, feet, and mouth. In FMDV (Foot and Mouth disease Virus) endemic areas, annual production losses and vaccination estimated US$6.5-US$21 billion. Currently, the techniques which are used for diagnosis of FMD are Sandwich-ELISA (S-ELISA), Virus Isolation (VI), indirect ELISA (DIVA), real time-PCR and Liquid-Phase Blocking ELISA (LPBE) can be used for recognition of antibody against nonstructural proteins. The techniques which are used for quick and specific detection of FMDV are microarray and recombinant antigen-based detection, biosensor, Nucleotide sequencing, phage display and nucleic-acid-based diagnostic for serotyping. This review provides information about the FMD in Pakistan as many cases are reported in Pakistan and lead to morbidity and mortality of many animals. This review helps the reader to handle the cases practically in the field and helps the researchers to analyze the comprehensive picture of the FMD and in future researchers try to minimize such cases after reading this in Pakistan.

Keywords: Contagious; Diagnosis; Economic; Picornaviridae



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