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Helicobacter pylori infection is non-hereditary disease caused by a bacteria H. pylori that possess gram-negative helical morphology. H. pylori infection can cause variety of gastrointestinal problems, including stomach ulcers, inflammation in stomach linings and cancer. The H. pylori bacterium has infected approximately 50% of the total populations. The frequency of H. pylori infection varies among countries, underdeveloped countries have high ratio of cases of H. pylori whereas its ratio is low in developed countries. Around 70% children of underdeveloped countries may be affected by H. pylori infection. Non-cardia gastric patient have a high chances to be infected by H. pylori however, the risk of gastric cardia cancer is relatively low in the H. pylori infection. Patients with weak metabolic control and poor glycemic condition especially diabetes type 2 patients are more susceptible to H. pylori disease. The Gastroesophageal reflux syndrome and H. pylori infection share an inverse relationship particularly those with CagA-positive strains, are less likely to have risk of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). The association of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with H. pylori infection reveals that Cytotoxic-associated gene A (cagA) negative strain is the leading cause of H. pylori infection in NAFLD. Diagnosis of H. pylori can be performed by upper endoscopy or EGD, Breath test and stool culture. Treating H. pylori medicine with natural ingredient such as probiotic, green tea, honey and olive oil can improve the efficiency of antibacterial drug. This review demonstrates that patients of non-cardia gastritis, diabetes type 2 and NAFLD are more prone to be infected by H. pylori disease the ratio of H. pylori infection in humans can be reduced by improving domestic hygienic and sanitary infrastructure.
Keywords: Breath test; Cancer of stomach; Diabetes type 2; Endoscopy; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Gastric cardia cancer; Helicobacter pylori; Non-cardia gastric cancer; Stomach ulcers; Stool culture