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Ficus carica L., (Moraceae), commonly found in tropical and subtropical areas, known for its ethno-medicinal uses. The current work aimed to study macro and microscopic features and screen the plant ethanol extract for its antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) was used for antioxidant and Agar-well-diffusion method for screening antimicrobial activity. The results revealed that powdered drug possess unicellular, uniserrate covering trichomes, parenchymatous tissue containing spiral vascular strands, anomocytic stomata and calcium oxalate crystals. Phytochemically, the extract possesses reducing sugars, polysaccharides, oxalic acid, amino acid and proteins. The antioxidant activity of Ficus carica leaves ethanol extract, using various concentration (125, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 µg/ml) gave the results of 21.42±01, 29.65±03, 53.15±03, 57.00±01 and 62.99±05, respectively. The leaves ethanol extract used for antibacterial activity have concentrations of 200 and 500 mg/ml, both of which were found effective against the selected bacterial strains. K. pneumonia was inhibited (18 & 28mm), E. coli was found (20 & 26 mm) susceptible, Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited with (24 and 26mm) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was inhibited by (22 and 28mm). It is concluded from the present study that leaf ethanol extract of Ficus carica has good antioxidant constituents and possess positive antimicrobial chemical metabolites. These metabolites can be used to treat various infectious and chronic diseases caused by microbes. This work is important in order to assess the significance of Ficus carica used locally. More research is required to isolate these metabolites to establish clinical trials for human benefits.
Keywords: Antimicrobial; Antioxidant; Ficus Carica; Medicinal Plants; Phytochemicals