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The current research work is concerned with the identification of secondary metabolites through phytochemical screening as well as the evaluation of antifungal potential by well diffusion method of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the leaves, flowers and bulbs of Allium neapolitanum Cirillo belonging to Family Liliaceae. The results of phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids and terpenoids in the leaves, flowers and bulbs; glycosides in the flowers and leaves; reducing sugars in the leaves and bulbs; anthraquinones and saponins in the bulbs only while fixed oils and fats in the leaves of Allium neapolitanum. For Fusarium species, among the ethanolic extracts, the highest inhibition 126.05%, 135.2% and 152.75% was shown by bulbs followed by leaves (82%, 83.33% and 116.4%) and flowers (80.01%, 77.8% and 85.43%) at 6 μl/ml, 12 μl/ml and 18 μl/ml concentrations. Similarly, among the methanolic extracts, the highest inhibition was also shown by bulbs (114.04%, 118.5% and 127.3%), followed by flowers (80.01%, 96.3% and 107.25%) at 6 μl/ml, 12 μl/ml and 18 μl/ml concentrations respectively. However, leaves did not show any activity at the given concentrations. For A. niger and Alternaria species, no activity was observed at all. Findings from this study confirmed that the plant extracts can be used as natural fungicides to control pathogenic fungi, thus reducing the dependence on the synthetic fungicides.
Keywords: Antifungal activities; Ethanolic and methanolic extracts; Fungal strains; Phytochemical screening