Main Article Content
In the Pakistan milk is marketed by traditional methods, whereby informal channels cause unethical activities of adulteration in the milk. In this regards, investigation was conducted. First phase included screening of market milk for various adulterants at three different zones (Southern, Central and Northern) of Sindh province, while in second phase in vitro study was conducted at the Department of Animal Products Technology, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam to examine the effect of extraneous water on physical characteristics of milk. Results showed significant (P<0.05) effect of different concentrations of spiked water on physical characteristics of milk. In contrast to control milk (CM), physical characteristics of milk like specific gravity (sp. gr.), viscosity, conductivity, acidity, freezing point (FP) and refractive index (RI) of water spiked milk gradually decreased and pH values went towards neutral point with increase in concentration of water (10, 20, 30, 40 and/or 50%). Spiked source of water viz. water supply water (WSW) v/s canal water (CW), pond water (PW) and/or commercial ice water (CIW), and underground water (UW) v/s CIW showed considerable (P<0.05) variation in the sp. gr. of milk. Comparatively high (P<0.05) values were recorded for viscosity and acidity with spiked source of CW in milk, and for conductivity and RI with WSW versus their corresponding source of water. The pH values of milk admixed with PW and WSW recorded slightly alkaline, and with CW, UW and CIW slightly acidic. FP of milk added with WSW, CIW and/or with CW varied significantly (P<0.05) from each other.
Keywords: Adulteration; Extraneous water; Milk; Physical characteristics