10. Review on-Genome editing tool to combat with multidrug resistant bacteria: Challenges and future perspectives

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Ghulam Akbar, Muhammad Anjum Zia, Ali Ahmad, Neha Arooj, Mahpara qamar, Mohsin Raza and Shahneela Nusrat


These sequences are interspaced short palindromic repeats in regularly clustered manner known as CRISPRs. These sequences are derived from bacteria and archaea and have adaptive immune systems. Modified RNA is used as target for identification of DNA. The nucleic acids are destroyed with Cas enzyme. There are several multidrug resistance bacteria which are gradually increasing it's resistance against most of the present antibiotics. Multidrug resistance bacteria such as Staphylococci and enterococci may cause resistant against almost all antibiotics. Therefore, lives of million' speople are at greater risk due to these multidrug resistant infectious bacteria. Due to lack of novel therapeutic techniques multidrug-resistant bacteria are being out of control with continual increase of their infections. The bacteria and archaea are protected against invading nucleic acids. Therefore, this CRISPR-Cas system is considered as immune system. The bacterial pathogens of clinical significance can be killed by using phage mids (plasmids packed into phage capsids) of CRISPR-cas9 tool. This sequence specific targeting makes CRISPR Cas system unique for the detection of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. This review describes CRISPR Cas technology, its types, Cas delivery vehicle, mechanism, challenges with their solutions and future perspectives.

Keywords: CRISPR-Cas; Challenges; Delivery; Drug resistance bacteria; Types


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