11. Prevalence and Manifestations of Hypothyroidism among Population of Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan

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Naheed Shah, Tahira Jabeen Ursani, Nadir Ali Shah, Hafiz Muhammad Zeeshan Raza


The major endocrine gland is the thyroid gland, which secretes vital hormones like T3 (tri-iodothyronine), T4 (thyroxine) and TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) which are the key performer in the maintenance of body’s homeostasis of the body. The thyroid related disorders are rapidly increasing around the globe due to deficiency of iodine and other factors. There is also a high prevalence of thyroidal diseases in Pakistan. Although it is not a life threatening disorder, but if it is overlooked and remained untreated, it may develop into life threatening disorders like cancer. Moreover, as thyroid gland is a malfunctioned gland and greatly affects various functions of many other body parts which depend on the hormonal secretion of thyroid hormones for performing their normal functions. To assess the thyroidal disorder (hypothyroidism) situation of in Sindh, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of hypothyroidism in population of Hyderabad. Hypothyroid diagnosed individuals were enrolled, and their serum thyroid hormones level, signs, symptoms, and clinical manifestations were observed. Thyroid function test (TFT) was done using radioimmunoassay techniques ELISA, Immunoassay test (RIA) kits. Different clinical manifestations, signs and symptoms presented by the patients were also analyzed, and disease was determined in relation to those symptoms. High prevalence of hypothyroidism was found in females. In hypothyroid patients, goiter was observed to be 27%, Hashimotos to be 9%, Thyroid Cancer to be 10%, and Iodine Deficiency to be 88% with high prevalence in 21years to 29 years age group.

Keywords: Endocrine gland; Goiter; Hypothyroidism; Hashimotos; TSH; T3; T4; Thyroid Cancer


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