3. Prevalence and etiology of thyroid disease: A review

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Naheed Shah, Tahira Jabeen Ursani, Nadir Ali Shah, Hafiz Muhammad Zeeshan Raza


Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are the major thyroid disorders caused due to malfunctioning of the thyroid gland. Thyroid diseases have been observed in more than 100 countries and affecting approximately 1.6 billion populations worldwide and people are many at risk and desperately need iodine supplementation. Thyrotoxicosis is the term mostly used for hyperthyroidism, but not all the cases of hyperthyroidism signify thyrotoxicosis. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are caused because of low or high production of thyroid hormones. Causes of hyperthyroidism are thyroid hyperplasia related to Graves` disease, high intake of thyroid hormones, multi nodular goiter and hyper functional goiter and thyroid adenoma. Other causes of hyperthyroidism may include thyroiditis, pituitary adenoma secreted by TSH and high secretion by ectopic thyroid. Deficiency of iodine usually causes hypothyroidism. Iodine salt plays integral role in hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism. Need of iodine is compensated by water and foods if there is deficiency in sources of iodine, then it results in malfunctioning of thyroid gland resulting in development of cretinism, hypothyroidism and many other iodine related issues. The thyroid disease and its prevalence vary from country to country. The prevalence of hyperthyroidism in Pakistan was observed to be 5.1% while sub clinical hyperthyroidism accounted for 5.8%, however hypothyroidism was observed to be 4.1% and 5.4% in case of sub clinical hypothyroidism respectively. In females the prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, sub clinical hyperthyroidism as well as sub clinical hypothyroidism was higher in female population as compared to the males.

Keywords: Hypothyroidism; Hyperthyroidism; Iodine; Thyroid disorders; Thyrotoxicosis; Thyroid glands


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