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Cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in Asian countries as compared to Western countries. The insufficient intake of dietary fibre is the main cause of hypercholesterolemia leading to cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to extract Beta Glucans (BG) from various sources including oat, barley and yeast cells and evaluate their influence on total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) levels as well as on triglycerides in induced hypercholesterolemic rats. It was observed that BG obtained from barley reduced the levels of total cholesterol to 125 mg/dl from 180 mg/dl, levels of LDL from 30 mg/dl to 27 mg/dl while it did not show any effect on HDL levels. Yeast extracted BG resulted in the reduction of total cholesterol from 180 mg/dl to 40 mg/dl, decreasing the value LDL from 30 mg/dl to 8 mg/dl, though, it also did not influence HDL levels. BG extracted from oat lowered the total cholesterol and LDL from 180 mg/dl to 171 and from 30 mg/dl to 10 mg/dl respectively. Though, plant extracted BG increased the level of HDL from 40 mg/dl to 125 mg/dl. These results indicated that yeast extracted glucan was more efficient in lowering of serum lipid components in rats and they can be used as a supplement in order to decrease the cardiovascular disease.
Keywords: Animal models; Cardiovascular diseases; Cholesterol levels; Dietary fibers; Metabolism disorders