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The aim of this research activity was the in vivo evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect and acute toxicity of the crude methanol extract of Viola serpens and its various fractions. For acute toxicity test a dose of 2 g/Kg was found to be safe. The Wistar albino rats were used for the models of Carrageenan-induced paw edema (CIPE), histamine induced paw edema (HIPE) and xylene induced ear edema (XIEE). In CIPE and HIPE models all the fractions and the crude extract mostly showed more significant responses in all the three test doses from the 2nd till the 5th hour. These effects may be the results of certain compounds which may resists or inhibit the histamine, prostaglandins or mediators of the mast cells. Similarly, in model of XIEE both the crude extract and n-hexane fraction showed significant inhibition (P< 0.05) in a dose dependent way. Whereas, the other tested fractions showed topically subsided effect at 300 mg/kg, suggesting that fractions act by inhibiting the enzyme phospholipase A2 (PLA2).
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory; Acute toxicity; Carrageenan; Histamine and xylene