1. Recent developments in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) management and potential antimicrobial alternatives to combat the antibiotic resistance challenge: A review

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Saleha Mahnoor Faheem, Umar Farooq Gohar, Sidra Riaz


The global emergence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains is causing a serious increase in mortality and morbidity rates both in hospitals and in community settings. The high incidence of MRSA associated bacteremia can potentially cause infective endocarditis, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and complications such as septic shock which are becoming a high challenge for clinicians to treat. The multi-resistance acquisition of MRSA against currently available antibiotics has significantly reduced their efficacy against related infections. To overcome this global health concern of the rapidly spreading antibiotic-resistance phenomenon among bacterial pathogens, particularly MRSA, implementation of effective management strategies and the need for rapid identification and practical application of potential antimicrobial alternatives has become crucial. Herein, we have provided a brief description of potential antimicrobial alternatives i.e., phytochemicals from plant extracts, bacteriocins, antimicrobial peptides, bacteriophage therapy, nanoparticles and some other approaches that can be used as monotherapy or in combination with currently effective antibiotics to combat MRSA infections. An overview of MRSA infections and developments in MRSA management has also been presented in the initial section of this review.

Keywords: Antibiotic-resistance; Antimicrobial alternatives; Bacteremia; Nosocomial infections; Phytochemicals, Staphylococcus aureus


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