1. Nutritional assessment of Covid-19 patients admitted in intensive care units in Pakistan

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Zainab Bibi, Muhammad Tariq Saeed, Mahpara Safdar, Rezzan Khan, Anam Zehra, Syeda Nimra Naqvi Madiha Ghazanfar, Omair Ali Shan, Zubair Hussain, Mir Muhammad Nasir Qayyum


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be life threating if untreated. Early diagnosis and effective nutritional management can save life. To assess the nutritional status and predict possible outcomes of critical patients Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), nutrition risk in critically ill patients (NUTRIC), and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) score has been used. This retrospective observational study was conducted on confirmed COVID-19 cases in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Shifa hospital between November 24, 2020 to May 31, 2021. The demographic, clinical and laboratory information was obtained from hospital records. Risk factors for COVID-19 were identified and compared using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The nutritional risk for each patient was assessed. In this study 162 COVID-19 patients with median age of 64 years (IQR: 56-74) were included. Hypertension (59.2%) was found to be the most common comorbidity and the most prevalent symptoms upon admission were fever (54.9%). The patients in critical condition were supplied nutrients through nasogastric route (61.7%) while 37.7% and 0.6 % were assisted through oral and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) route. The Glasgow comma score was found to be mild (72.2%) (GCS>12) with increased creatinine, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein (CRP C), and glycosylated haemoglobin HbA1c level were present. Interestingly based on SOFA, APACHE and NUTRIC score low insignificant malnutrition risk was observed. Our study found different demographic factors and comorbidities have a substantial impact on COVID-19 patients, as evidenced by demographic, laboratory, clinical, and nutritional risk factors.

Keywords: Apache Score; Covid-19; Nutritional Assessment; Nutric Score; Sofa Score


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