3. A review on Forkhead Box A1 (FOXA1) gene; A potent candidate for prostate and breast cancer

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Muhammad Awais, Rimsha Zafar, Naveera Khan, Iqra Khan, Nimra Naeem, Muhammad Saim Bashir, Zobaria Khan


Prostate and breast cancers are two most common hormone dependent cancers in both male and female respectively. Forkhead Box A1 (FOXA1) gene is considered to involve in both of these cancers. It is a transcriptional factor which can interact with DNA through its Forkhead binding domain and can enhance transcription by opening chromatin so that other transcriptional factors can bind. FOXA1 - Forkhead class of DNA binding proteins dictate the binding location and function of two transcription factors oestrogen and androgen receptors. These receptors are the drivers of prostate and breast cancer. In recent years, there have been progress to understand that how FOXA1 influenced the function of nuclear hormone receptors.  Role of FOXA1 in the regulation of both androgen and oestrogen receptors has also been studied in this review. Protein – FOXA1 is essential for both of these receptors for their transcriptional activity. FOXA1 is considered as the third most mutated gene in hormone dependent cancers . There are evidences of some somatic changes in the DNA sequence under FOXA1 region and it can influence the regulation of FOXA1 in ER and AR activity. Mutational analysis of FOXA1 in both prostate and breast cancer have been discussed in this review based study. In future, this review based study can help the scientific community to work on the therapeutic treatment of prostate and breast cancer targeting FOXA1 gene as it is potent mutated gene in both cancers.

Keywords: Androgen receptor; Breast Cancer; Forkhead domain; FOXA1; Oestrogen receptor; Prostate cancer; Wing2 region


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