5. Overview of muscular dystrophy, it’s types, symptoms, management and possible treatment

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Syed Talha Liaqat, Fatima Akram, Raheel Waseem, Ayesha Akram, Muhammad Zain Altaf, Burhan Haider Nimrah Zulfiqar, Amina Arif


Muscular dystrophy is genetic disease appears as gradual weakening and breaking of the skeletal muscles. The main symptom of muscular dystrophy is progressive muscles weakness. Up till now more than thirty types of muscular dystrophy are known. Prognosis relies on the type of muscular dystrophy. Congenital muscular dystrophy is observed up to the age of two years. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is found in the children. It is mostly found in boys and very less in girls. The lifetime of a person with DM is twenty years (adolescences). Myotonic dystrophy is also known as steinert’s disease, causes myotonia, in which muscles are not relaxed after contraction. Mostly adults in twenty’s and thirty’s have this type of muscular dystrophy. Becker muscular dystrophy mostly occurs in boys at the age of 11 and 25. It usually attack on legs, arms, and causes muscle weakness. Emery dreifuss muscular dystrophy is more common in boys and occurs at the age of infancy. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy appears both in females and males. It causes weakness in neck, shoulder and in facial muscles. It is diagnosed at the age of 40s or 50s. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy is found in both men and women at the age of 20s. It can be diagnosed by DNA testing, muscle biopsy and parental test. Muscular dystrophy has no treatment presently but it has some managements, which are beneficial for person with muscular dystrophy. Many complications occur when muscles become more weaken. Many patients use walkers and wheelchair for movement.

Keywords: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD); Immunohistochemistry; Insulin-like growth factor; Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMD); Muscular dystrophy (MD); Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD)


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