8. Microbial metabolic engineering and CRISPR; applications and future prospective

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Taimoor Akhtar, Muhammad Awais, Sahar Sadaqat, Hafiza Noor Afshan Tauqir Malik, Muneeb Riaz, Allah Bakhsh Abdul Qayyum Rao


Traditional metabolic engineering alters cell metabolism by modifying pathway enzyme(s) or regulatory protein(s), enhancing the productivity and yield of an industrial fermentation product, or creating novel biochemical substances. As a result, metabolic engineering is now being utilized to produce amino acids, biofuels, medicines, bioplastics, platform chemicals, silk proteins, and other materials. The discovery of bacterial adaptive immune systems based on genomic Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs), the system’s memory, and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins was a watershed moment in molecular microbiology. The advancements in CRISPR-Cas-based bacterial genome engineering provide a better understanding of metabolism on a system level and allow for faster strain engineering, both of which are critical for the creation of a bio-based economy based on microbial cell factories. Some microbes like Escherichia coli, streptococcus, closteridium, corynebacteria, and Baccilus are described in this review, which can be engineered in a desired manner to attain productive benefits. These amazing, engineered entities have a biological and mechanistic basis, and their manufactured variants are transforming basic and clinical research.

Keywords: Bacteria; CRISPR-Cas; Genetic engineering; Microbiology; Metabolism; Productivity


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