45. Taxonomical and epidemiological study of tick species on domesticated animals

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Muhammad Jamil, Sajed Ali, Jaweria Gul, Muhammad Kashif, Naimat Ullah, Mubarik Ali, Norina Jabeen Imtiaz Khan, Imran Qazi


Global environmental changes have led to an increase in the spread of ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs) affecting humans, domestic, and wild animals. Ticks are obligate ectoparasites that transmit a wide range of pathogens that cause a wide range of diseases in livestock, resulting in skin damage, weight loss, anemia, mortality, morbidity, reduced meat and milk production. The taxonomic and epidemiological study was conducted in District Muzaffargarh during 2020-2022. Ten species such as Amblyomma variegatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, Haemaphysalis sulcate, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma detritum, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and Rhipicephalus microplus belonged to four genera were identified. Prevalence percentage of A. variegatum, Hae. punctata, Hae. sulcate, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. marginatum, Hy. detritum, Rh. decoloratus, Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineus, and Rh. microplus was 3.74, 8.42, 9.19, 20.93, 3.70, 8.80, 11.14, 5.82, 15.78, and 12.42%, respectively on examined animals. Hyalomma anatolicum was recorded abundant species in the current study area. Area-wise data showed that Hy. marginatum was only collected from Chowk Sarwar Shaheed while Rh. turanicus and Rh. decoloratus from Muzaffargarh. Among areas, animals in tehsil Muzaffargarh were extremely infested with tick species while lightly in Chowk Sarwar Shaheed. Host-wise data showed that Rh. microplus, Rh. turanicus, and Hy. marginatum was not found on sheep, goats, and buffaloes, respectively. The prevalence of ticks on buffaloes, cows, goats and sheep was 32.51, 26.85, 21.87, and 18.76%, respectively. Maximum tick infestation was recorded on buffaloes while minimum on sheep. Summer (months of June and July) season was provided with the most suitable environment for tick migration and reproduction. Tick diversity, infestation rate, and numerous factors (area of collection, age, season, and sex of host) influencing tick infestation rate in different breeds of sheep, goats, cows, and buffalo in three tehsils of district Muzaffargarh were studied. Due to excessive feeding of tick species, production of the animals can reduce with the increase of tick and tick-borne diseases. The proper identification and epidemiology of tick species will prove fruitful in managing by adopting effective control measures against ticks and tick-borne diseases.

Keywords: Domesticated animals; Identification; Prevalence; Punjab; Pakistan; Ticks


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