A comprehensive review on lumpy skin disease

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Luqman Khan, Irshad Ali Khan, Mehran Gul, Muhammad Bin Riaz, Abbas khan, Muskan Saleem, Rizwan Khan Asmat Ullah, Hammad Khan Khushmir, Summiya Shireen, Abdur Rehman, Shah Saud


The virus that causes lumpy skin disease is the deadliest known viral disease (LSDV). The Poxvirdae family includes the lumpy skin virus with a 151kb genome. It is an encapsulated, host-specific virus. It first appeared in Zambia in 1929 and at first was only seen in African nations, but it has since expanded to the continents of Asia and Europe. The high grade fever that precedes skin nodules on the neck, legs, and tail regions, viral pneumonia, mastitis, diarrhoea, and keratitis are all characteristics of LSDV. Based on the type of strain, the host's sex, age, and immunological condition, it can have high morbidity (up to 85%) and low mortality (up to 5%) rates. Although LSDV significantly lowers the productivity (milk and meat) of affected cattle, it is of significant economic significance. Due to the spread's impact on roughly 5 million farmers, its introduction into Pakistan in 2022 resulted in a significant economic loss. Because the insect vectors are most active in the summer, the rate of transmission is high. The major transmitters are hard ticks. Several serological approaches, such as virus neutralisation, ELISA, and conventional and real-time PCR methodologies, have been established for its diagnosis. For the time being, LSDV cannot be treated. Drugs that treat inflammation and secondary infections can lessen the severity of illness and prevent additional infections. The only way to stop the damage caused by LSDV is thorough vaccination with 100% coverage, which can be accomplished by isolating or slaughtering the infected cattle to stop the disease's spread.

Keywords: Capripoxvirus; ELISA; Keratitis; Transstadial transfer; Transboundary illness; Virus neutralization


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