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The present research work was carried out to appraise the variations in the chemical composition, antimicrobial and haemolytic activities of hydro-distilled essential oils from peels of three Citrus cultivars including Citrus reticulata (Kinnow), Citrus sinensis (Mussammi), and Citrus x sinensis (Red blood orange). The essential oil yield from the peels of these cultivars was found to be 0.86, 1.70 and 1.07 %, respectively. Overall, the major chemical constituents (GC-FID analysis) in the peel essential oils of C. reticulata, C. sinensis and C. x sinensis were identified to be limonene (46.30-54.57%), geraniol (10.02-24.00 %) and citraniol (10.05-14.00%). Among the oils tested, peel essential oil of C. reticulata exhibited maximum zone of inhibition against bacterial strains whereas that of C. x sinensis against fungal strains. The tested peel essential oils exhibited small extent of haemolytic activity (0.29 to 1.09%) indicating negligible cytotoxicity. The antibacterial, antifungal and haemolytic activities of the tested Citrus peel essential oils varied considerably (p<0.05) among cultivars depending upon the variable composition of the oils.
Keywords: Antimicrobial agents; Cell; Citrus Peel essential oil; GC-FID; Hydrodistillation