22. General distribution of different arthropods species associated with sunflower in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: (A survey of Peshawar, Mardan and Swabi District:)

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Fazal Said, Fazal Jalal, Muhammad Imtiaz , Muhammad Ali Khan, Sayed Hussain


A field survey was carried out to record different insect pests, pollinators and natural enemies associated with sunflower, in three districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa i.e. Peshawar, Mardan and Swabi during 2012 and 2013. The collection was focused to recored insect pest, pollinators and natural enemies in spring and autum season on weekly basis from various sunflower fields till crop maturity. The districts were assigned as Site A (Peshawar), Site B (Mardan) and Site C (Swabi). Results showed that. Seedling and root feeding pests includedcutworm, Field crickets, Black field earwig and Grasshopper spp. Stem feeders insect included stem weevil and tree hoppers. Sucking pests were Whitefly, Leaf hoppers, Aphids and Green stink bug), defoliators included leaf beetle, Tobacco caterpillar, Cabbage semilooper and Hairy caterpillar and (Capitulum borer, Thrips, Brown stink bug and Seed Weevil recorded as capitulum or seed feeders.  Apart from insect pests, honeybees, bumble bees, carpenter bees and halictid bees were recorded as pollinator associated with sunflower. Among the recorded insect pest, Lepidopterous insect were the most dominant (( milkweed butterfly, cabbage butterfly, yellow butterfly, diamondback moth and swallowtail butterflies) Followed by Dipterous insect that include, syrphid fly as pollinating agent of sunflower. Furthermore, ladybird beetle, green lacewing, praying mantis, syrphid flies, tachinid flies and certain species of spiders were the natural enemies associated insect complex of sunflower.

Keywords: Arthropods; Natural enemies; Pests; Pollinators Sunflower


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