1. Association of obesity, diabetes and linked complications with gut microbiota

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Amina Arif, Zobaria Khan, Seemab Khalid, Muhammad Azam Gujjar Rafique Ahmed Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem


Gut microbiota is the microorganism community comprising of bacteria, eukaryotes and archaea as well as different viruses that live in the small intestinal tract and gut. Human have clusters of bacteria in the intestine. Gut microbiota encompasses tens of trillions microorganisms, including different types of bacteria with more than 3 million genes. In normal humans, microbiota usually weighs up to 2 kg. In simple words, microbiota in our intestine is like a person’s identity card. Microbiota may corresponds to many inter-related diseases such as obesity, diabetes and complications linked to them e.g. renal toxicity, kidney stones, diabetes retinopathy, hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetic foot ulcer, Alzheimer’s disease and cystic fibrosis.  Germ free animals protected against obesity when transferred with gut microbes from conventionally raised animals resulted in dramatic increase in their body fat content and resistance to insulin. Moreover, composition of the gut microbiota has shown to differ in lean and obese humans changed rapidly in response to dietary factors. There are some factors that affect the composition of gut microbiota such as food, disease state, medications, genetics of host etc. This review highlights the fact that modification of gut microbiota may be a beneficial way in the treatment of obesity, diabetes and other metabolic disorders.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Cystic fibrosis; Diabetes mellitus; Gut microbiota; Obesity


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