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Lead poisoning has been documented as a key public health threat, mostly in developing countries. Though several public health and occupational methods have been undertaken in order to control lead exposure, cases of lead poisoning are still reported. Exposure to lead produces various deleterious effects on the hematopoietic, renal, and reproductive and central nervous system, mainly through increased oxidative stress. These alterations play a prominent role in disease manifestations. In the current paper the concentration of lead was analysed in the soil of different sites and plant parts (roots and shoots) in their natural habitat. The concentration of lead in the soil and plant parts; roots and shoots was found in the range of 1- 32.3, 22-533.33 and 13.67-432 mg/Kg respectively. Bioconcentration factor (BCF), translocation factor (TF) and bioaccumulation coefficient (BAC) of all the analysed plants were calculated. The feasibility of each plant species for the phytoremediation of lead metal was evaluated on the basis of BCF, TF and BAC. The BCFs, TFs and BACs values of the plants for lead metal was found in the range of 1.86-193.33, 0.05-8.3 and 1.79-219 respectively. Most of the plant species showed feasibility for the phytoremediation of lead metal but based on its concentration in shoots and BCFs, TFs and BACs values, Erigeron canadensis L., Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Medicago minima (L.) L., Delphinium uncinatum Hook.f. & Thomson and Verbena officinalis L. were found the most efficient plants for the phytoextraction of lead while based on its concentration in roots and BCFs, TFs and BACs values, Nonea edgeworthii A. DC., Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., Sarcococca saligna (D. Don) Muell.-Arg. in DC., Prodr., Marrubium vulgare L. and Ranunculus arvensis L. for the phytostabilization of lead metal.
Keywords: Lead; Phytoremediation; Phytoextraction; Phytostabilization