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The prehistoric interaction of plants and human is being strengthened by the remarkable use of plants as remedy against diseases. Cucumis sativus L. is extensively cultivated globally including Pakistan. The present study was carried out to find the antioxidant, antimicrobial and phytochemical analysis of Cucumis sativus seed extract. Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, cardiac glycoside, phenols and carbohydrates. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method was used for antioxidant activity. Crude ethanolic extract showed maximum DPPH scavenging activity of 46.05±1.23 at 500µg/ml, while ascorbic acid showed 92.5%. For Antimicrobial activity against selected bacteria and fungi by agar well diffusion method was used. In the antibacterial activity, crude ethanolic extract was most active against Staphylococcus aureus (21.5mm) and less against Shigella flexneri (17.0mm). The n-haxane fraction was highly active against Salmonella typhi (26mm), DCM against E. coli (16.25mm) and Salmonella typhi showed 16.0mm inhibition with ethyl acetate. Crude extract of ethanol was tested against Alternaria, Acremonium, Verticellium, Pythium and Tricoderma sps. Alternaria showed low zone of inhibition (08mm) while the rest of fungi were highly susceptible with zone of inhibition 15mm, 14mm, 17mm and 15mm respectively. The Pythium spp. was highly susceptible to n-haxane fraction (20.00mm), Acremonium to DCM fraction (20.00mm) and to ethyl acetate (16.00 mm). The results showed significant antimicrobial and antioxidant activity which might be because of flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and phenols in there, suggesting that C. sativus should be used as an active nutrition to control microbial infections leading to chronic diseases.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity; Antioxidant activity; Cucumis sativus L.; Phytochemical analysis