Main Article Content
Microbial adhesion and pathogenesis result in serious problems in world. In case of infectious diseases in human being, there is an epidemiological issue, on another hand, if microbes infect poultry and crops, there is a huge economical and nutritional loss. Antibiotics used to control this microbial pathogenesis but the excess use of antibiotics and other chemical compounds in intensive animal production have several side effects and results in increased antibiotic resistance day by day. Antimicrobial resistance becomes a great problem in the world. Scientists are seeking for the product which can be used as alternative to the antibiotic with less side effects. Bacteriocin is such a type of peptide which works when bacteria become resistant to some antibiotic. It is ribosomaly synthesize antimicrobial peptide by gram positive and gram-negative bacteria. Various types of bacteria produce different type of bacteriocins. They have different antimicrobial spectrum. Spectrum of antimicrobial activity varies from bacteria to bacteria. Due to their proteinaceous nature they are harmless to human gastrointestinal tract. Bacteriocins are used to treat many infectious diseases in animals and human beings. It has wide application in food industry to prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Nisin was the first bacteriocin used in the food as the research advances novel bacteriocins introduced which are being used in food industry for the preservation of food. Moreover, it has wide application in pharmaceutical industry. Bacteriocins are gaining attention in the recent era due to their unique mode of antimicrobial action and wide application in various industries.
Keywords: Antimicrobial activity; Antimicrobial peptide; Bacteriocin and pathogenic bacteria