69. Iron and manganese concentrations of vegetables grown in soil irrigated with wastewater: Evaluation of health risk to the public

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Zafar Iqbal Khan, Anam Nisar Ilker Ugulu Kafeel Ahmad, Kinza Wajid Muhammad Nadeem, Tahir Mehmood Qureshi Humayun Bashir, Mudasra Munir Ijaz Rasool Noorka Khalid Nawaz Mahpara Shehzadi Ifra Saleem Malik Hafsa Memona, Madiha Sana Asma Ashfaq, Rabia Abdullah, Sana Iqbal, Fauzia Batool, Mian Jahan Zaib Rasheed Samra Siddique Naunain Mehmood Taswar Abbas Saif Ullah Hira Muqadas



Aim of the present research was to determine the concentrations of iron and manganese in soil, vegetables grown at the areas which are usually irrigated with canal water and sewage water. The samples were analysed through atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean iron and manganese concentrations in soil samples varied from 16.425 to 32.835 mg/kg and 0.450 to 0.904 mg/kg, respectively. The highest Fe value was observed in Raphanus sativus irrigated with sewage water irrigation and the lowest content was noticed in Capsicum frutescens irrigated with canal water. In the same way as Fe, the highest Mn value was observed in Raphnus sativus irrigated with sewage water and the lowest content was noticed in Capsicum frutescens irrigated with canal water irrigation. In all vegetables, the daily intake of metal values for Fe and Mn were higher during sewage water irrigation as compared to the canal water irrigation. Bio-concentration factor values of heavy metals were less than 1 in all vegetables and these results specified that metal bioavailability was low at the two sites. Health risk index values of Fe and Mn fell under the safe limit of health risk index value and the vegetables were deemed fit for human consumption. But amid irrigation of wastewater, there are chances of further contamination upto levels that are hazardous to public health.

Keywords: Heavy metal; Iron; Manganese; Wastewater; Vegetable


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