83. Appraisal of chromium and cobalt contents of vegetables grown in soil irrigated with sewage water: A risk for consumers’ health

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Zafar Iqbal Khan, Anam Nisar Ilker Ugulu Kafeel Ahmad, Kinza Wajid Muhammad Nadeem, Tahir Mehmood Qureshi Farzana Shaheen, Shahzad Akhtar, Humayun Bashir, Mudasra Munir Ijaz Rasool Noorka Khalid Nawaz Mahpara Shehzadi Naunain Mehmood Ifra Saleem Malik Hafsa Memona, Madiha Sana Asma Ashfaq, Rabia Abdullah, Sana Iqbal, Fauzia Batool, Mian Jahan Zaib Rasheed Samra Siddique Siddique Abrar Hussain Fahim Arshad Taswar Abbas Saif Ullah Hira Muqadas



The aim of the present research was to determine the concentrations of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) in soil, vegetables grown at the areas which are usually irrigated with canal water (CW) and sewage water (SW). The samples were analysed through Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The mean concentrations of Cr and Co in soil samples varied from 0.9 to 1.80 mg/kg and 0.575 to 1.10 mg/kg, respectively. The highest value of Cr was observed in Solanum lycopersicum irrigated with SWI and the lowest in Brassica rapa irrigated with CW. While in case of cobalt, the highest value was found in Solanum lycopersicum irrigated with SW and the lowest was noticed in Capsicum baccatum irrigated with CW. In all vegetables, the daily intake of metal values for Cr and Co were higher in SWI as compared to the CWI. Bio-concentration factor values of heavy metals were less than 1 in all vegetables for Cr and Co, and these results specified that metal bioavailability was low at CWI and SWI. Health Risk Index values of Cr and Co were less than one. The findings suggested that the locals were safe while consuming these vegetables but consistent use of waste water may increase the risk of contaminants as they may reach the toxic levels.

Keywords: Chromium; Cobalt; Wastewater; Vegetables


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