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Saussurea lappa is a critically endangered medicinal plant. It is necessary to conserve it. Plant tissue culture is one of the best way for its conservation. For callus induction apical shoots of S. lappa was sterilized with 0.1% mercuric chloride for 2 minutes and cultured on MS media supplemented with 1mgl-1 Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2-4 D) and 0.25 mgl-1 kinetin (Kn). The callus induction occurred after 3-7 days of inoculation. The Relative Growth Rate Week-1 (RGR) of the callus was calculated on fresh weight basis. Calculation revealed that a little decrease in RGR was found with increase in time duration. Statistically non-significant differences were found in RGR of the calli calculated week wise for three weeks. The best grown 2 weeks old calli, shoot callus (a) and root callus (b) were used to quantify proline and sugar concentration and compared to cultivated plant parts (root, petiole and lamina). Callus (b) was significantly higher in proline content (162.337µMg-1) and the soluble sugar content was significantly higher (234.182 µMg-1) in callus (a) compared to all other samples, whereas in plant parts root was found more efficient in proline (53.187 µMg-1) and sugar (200.084 µMg-1) content compared to petiole and lamina. All samples showed statistically significant difference on both total soluble sugar and proline content. Results showed that S. lappa callus induction rate was high in one and two weeks old calli which indicated that callus should be subculture after two weeks. Callus was found to contain maximum concentration of both proline and sugar compared to root, petiole and lamina of the field grown plant. Whereas among plant parts root was found to contain high proline and sugar content compared to petiole and lamina.
Keywords: Callus Induction; Proline and Sugars Content; Relative Growth Rate; Saussurea lappa