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Levels of sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca+2) and magnesium (Mg+2) ions were determined in the root, leaf and petiole of cultivated Sassurea lappa plant collected from Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar. The same ions were also analyzed in root (b) of the same plant collected from Koza Gali, Abbottabad as well as in wild plant root (c) of Kashmir hills. Potassium (K+) and sodium (Na+) in the medicinal plant, S. lappa were determined by using flame photometer (Jenway PFP 7) while Ca+2 and Mg+2 contents were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Hitachi Z-800). Significant differences were observed among all the tested samples. However, the highest level of K+ was 1886.45 µMg-1 found in cultivated plant petiole and its lowest concentration was 385.351 µMg-1 observed in shoot derived callus (callus a). Sodium content (Na+) was found higher in shoot callus (callus a) while magnesium (Mg+2) concentration was observed high (109.349 µMg-1) in root (b) collected from Koza Gali, Abbottabad and their lower concentrations were 102 µMg-1 and 47.432 µMg-1 found in petiole and wild plant root (root c) respectively. The lowest concentration was found in case of Ca+2 in comparison of other elements. The levels of all the selected elements were highly varied in the anatomical parts of the same cultivated plant, shoot and root derived calli and between the varied regions plant roots except Ca+2. The overall levels of the elements were found in the order: K+ > Na+ > Mg+2 > Ca+2.
Keywords: Saussurea lappa; In vitro culture; Calli; Major elements